Previous literature found overwhelming evidence of an agricultural gender gap in favor of male farmers. The case of Sri Lanka is unique as agricultural productivity, measured by yield per unit of land, is 25.4 percent higher among female farmers than male farmers. Using the nationally representative 2016 Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique, the paper explores the sources of this unconditional female productivity advantage. The analysis finds that the smaller plot size cultivated by women is the leading source of female productivity advantage, reflecting the inverse relationship between cultivated area and productivity. However, this productivity advantage does not translate into women’s higher crop earnings. Another important source is the gendered pattern of crop mix as women tend to cultivate more high-value, export-oriented crops, while men are more likely to grow paddy with low productivity. Once controlling for plot size and crop mix, a conditional male productivity advantage emerges, reflecting men’s greater access to agricultural resources and potentially an unequal pattern of division of labor associated with social and gender norms. Policies to promote equitable access to resources and address other constraints to women’s productivity in agriculture continue to be important in promoting gender equality.