This Iran Economic Monitor (IEM) provides an update on key economic developments and policies as of Spring 2022. Iran’s economy continued its gradual recovery in 2021-2022 following the rebound in domestic and external demand. Despite a more accommodative fiscal policy in 2021-2022, higher oil and tax revenues have improved the fiscal deficit-to-GDP ratio. GDP growth is projected to remain modest in the medium term, as the economy remains constrained by both global and domestic gr owth bottlenecks. A more favorable global oil market outlook is projected to improve Iran’s fiscal and external balances. Iran’s economic outlook is subject to significant risks. Consumer price inflation accelerated due to a combination of supply-push and demandpull factors, adding to pressures on the welfare of lower-income households. Addressing long-term development challenges, including impending climate change shocks, requires a comprehensive package of economic reforms complemented by adequate social protection measures.